Like many Social Workers, I have been desperately holding on to the dream that maybe one day the promises of a ‘different way of working’ will come true. Change, is, and always on the cards within the day-to-day life of Local Authority work. However, ‘Real’ change does not happen as often. When Eileen Munro reviewed the child protection system there were plenty of areas that needed improvement. No one could argue that this was not true.
The level of red tape often meant that social workers were not spending enough time with children and families - this had to be cut and reduced, with more autonomy to be given to each Local Authority. In order to adapt its policies and procedures, to meet the needs of the child in need within its area. Consideration was to be given to the journey of the child through what is and remains complex and often slow child protection system, before a permanent placement could be found either within the family or away from the family.
Sadly, like any other great idea it comes at a cost – one where savings need to be made, ring fenced budgets removed and the consequences higher if mistakes or errors occur. Of course this is really important, Child deaths are completely unacceptable as is any child abuse.
But and there is a but! a big one as well. Is the continuing rise in cases being held by social workers and the one factor that makes a difference to the quality of work being completed. A factor that will stop social workers seeing children, completing their assessments, direct work with families and ensuring that their case recordings are completed. Let alone complete the research they need to keep their learning up to date.
It is easy to see how social workers can ‘burn out’ very quickly as the better you are at understanding complex cases the more you have. Where new procedures at the front door and early intervention work is supposed to be reducing the number of cases needing statutory assessment and intervention. The actual number of referrals continue to rise, as does the growing level of cases being held by social workers.
Whilst this Government feels and focuses on the need to better educate or create super social workers, the reality remains, that this will not resolve the current situation in social work. Even the strongest of social worker can only manage the daily pressures and struggles for so long before the pressure becomes too much. Armed with the knowledge however, that the grass is not greener anywhere else, often social workers are faced with hard decisions when the levels of stress have reached capacity. Meaning often social workers leaving front line social work with their experience and knowledge lost.
So as the number of cases rise so do the numbers of social workers leaving, making it more complex for local authorities to recruit and maintain experienced staff.
Working in a busy and demanding frontline Child Protection team it has become clear that there is a haze around what Child Protection is; what is the responsibility around safeguarding and what is the Family Courts’ System role. It is not hard to understand how this has happened, when programmes like Panorama ‘I want my child back’ blur the complex and interesting debates together, making social work look like the evil big brother in a far bigger debate needed about safeguarding children.
Social Work is not the one single agency that has exclusivity in safeguarding children; “Safeguarding children-the action we take to promote the welfare of children and protect them from harm – is everyone’s responsibility. Everyone who comes into contact with children and families has a role to play.” (Working Together, 2013) and it is important to remember that ‘No single professional can have a full picture of a child’s needs and circumstances and, if children and families are to receive the right help at the right time, everyone who comes into contact with them has a role to play in identifying concerns, sharing information and taking prompt action’. (Working Together, 2013)
I have, however, seen a rise in the number of referrals I have to deal with on a daily basis since Serious Case Reviews about high-profile cases have become available for everyone to view. That the other key agencies’ involved with working with children, have become more cautious about the support they offer and how. Preferring instead to refer to children’s social care for early intervention, it is this intervention that creates tensions in the relationships between families and social services. Shaking off the image that the only role social work has ‘is to remove children’ is not an easy one, especially when it is so badly misunderstood,
Like many people in society – until I studied in social work and worked in a variety of settings with children – I did not fully understand, appreciate or want to believe that children could be harmed. However, as a Child Protection social worker, understanding what is ‘actual’ harm or the ‘likelihood’ of harm is extremely important in what is Child Protection; when the referral is received deciding whether there is an immediate need to protect and act, to investigate whether there is a Child Protection concern or whether the child is “in need.” As defined by the Children Act 1989.
I have found that it is becoming increasingly common that this social work task is becoming harder and harder. Professional anxiety around ‘what if’ and ‘this reminds me of X case!’ leaves the complex task of gathering the information and analysis even more difficult.
As a social worker being presented with a picture of events, it is important to be able to see the entire picture to understand the situation. For example, a four-year old girl at nursery with a bruise on her arm and a statement of ‘Daddy did it’ raises anxieties. However, there are many dimensions that could make this statement either far more serious or far less sinister. It is very easy to be criticised for being overly cautious or overly zealous in an approach taken when you do not have the entire facts to help make this decision.
It is for this reason ‘safeguarding’ is so important for all those involved in a child’s life. It is also for this reason that sometimes an answer cannot be gained to explain and identify harm and why, sometimes, decisions have to be made based on risk and probability. It is these decisions that often do not have an immediate positive outcome other than preventing possible serious harm to children – Where social workers are ‘damned if they do and damned if they don’t’. But even then social work is not about removing children; in the most, social work is about engaging families and making positive changes and is successful in doing this.
It seems that nearly every day the storm that is front line child protection rages harder and harder. There appears to be no shelter from the relentless barrage of telephone calls, referrals, crisis and twists within family life. Everyday adult decisions impacting upon the most innocent and unprotected in our society, a comment that most may question, a point that makes me the most frustrated in my role as a social worker. Yes, Children’s legislation is well recorded and there is a lot, especially around child protection and children who are looked after. Yet, sometimes I have been left wondering whether in all of the storm to safeguard children do we really still see the child? In a world where everyone wants whats best, but what does this mean? is it what is best for them or for the child?
There are some people who would like us to believe that the child protection system is broken, that children are not being safeguarded instead they are wrongfully removed to be forced into adoption. However, as much as the child protection system is blamed for its failings there continues to be a very real need for a system to be in place. In a society where adult needs continue to be placed in front of vulnerable children’s; child deaths will continue and continue and continue. Each time the system is blamed, failing are examined giving further fuel to both sides of the argument. But what worries me more is the attitude in scapegoating parents from blame that instead it is not their fault or societies. Instead attempts are made to accuse social workers of colluding with solicitors to remove innocent children from their parents. Stories fuelled by high profile MP’s and articles published in The Daily Telegraph, which lead to confusion and mistrust within society; creating tension and situations that may result in social care intervention where it might not have been needed.
It is clear that the government has no intention of changing its views on spending cuts, it is also clear that its hard-line policies on benefits will also not change. I am sure that this storm will continue being fuelled in every direction by adult fears about their own feelings around children. And like others working within the eye of the storm the daily interventions become harder and harder. Battered and wind-swept once children are safeguarded the storm continues with no chance to finish the paper work, no chance to return the phone call before the next big wave comes in. This is where the system is broken leaving many social workers leaving, buckling under the weight of the storm and not being sheltered by the Local Authority that they work for or by the government that creates the legislation in which they work to.
It is easy to be mislead into thinking that the aim of social work is simply to remove children, that this automatically solves all of the problems in the world. However, wouldn’t it be great if it did! but it does not solve the problems and is not the aim of social workers. So for those that campaign against social work please understand that social work and child protection is not this easy. That the threshold for removal is far higher than you think and as a social worker there have been far more positive interventions than there has been removals. That the numbers of cases that are being dealt with on a daily basis are being managed and managed well.
‘This time next year we will be Millionaires Rodney’ (Only Fools and Horses). It’s a nice thought and one I often dreamt about. The joy of never having to worry about ‘How are we going to pay the bills?’ Or ‘Can I afford that top?’ Is one that brings joy to me. If only! However, increasingly there is growing concern that private companies are starting to increase in their profit from the care of vulnerable children. A big business where children with complex needs are being placed into ‘safe’ accommodation, which is not being run by the Local Authority. More concerning is that some of this provision when inspected by Ofsted is not achieving the inspection outcome of Excellent that should be required in order to provide this care.
The question that has been asked is ‘Is it right to profit from the care of vulnerable children?’. The sensible answer is that we know that if a business is to be successful, it has to be profitable. But is this a sensible answer to care? I am sure David Cameron and his Tory colleagues would love to break down the perceived damaged and broken care system in order to profit from their private interests in private Health and Social Care issues. So I am glad that this is now being challenged.
It is important that when children have been found a place to live that they are invested in, achieve the permanence that we all enjoy. That at the first fall, they are not rejected because the behaviour will cost too much money. That time, boundaries and care is going to be provided to break down the perceived image that children in care are worthless and all criminals. Or that deep down breaking the image that they are bad and naughty and that’s why they are in care.
However, I have been able to visit a variety of residential homes that have been developed out of ‘City funding’ and the care and detail to the care that is provided has been outstanding. Starting with the ethos of the home and its workers to the commitment going above and beyond what is expected. On the down side I have also seen homes where proft has come at the expense of the young person and one I could not leave any child in. The difference is massive, as is the impact upon the young person and their outcomes in life and why this question is so important.
It is not just Residential homes of course that make money from caring for children – Fostering agencies also profit as exposed by Children as Core Assetts. Although Children as Core Assetts goes further implying that Children are stolen in order to help certain individuals profit. I am sure a story that the Daily Telegraph and Christopher Booker would love to write!
The real argument though should be the investment in an experienced workforce. Where workers leave consistently and frequently adding further pressure on caseloads and on the assessment process. Meaning support needed for families can not always be provided by and managed in the most appropriate way. The aim of ensuring children can remain within their family setting should be the main goal, reducing the need for external placements that drain the resources of local authorities further.
Business, profit and social work are terms that do not sit comfortably together more so when it comes to the care of the most vulnerable people in our society. However, where individaul effort and thought can use the resources available to make a much needed difference in a young persons life, I can not argue with this concept. However, I can and will when it has the reverse impact on such vulnerable lives. Profit should not come before safegurding and profit should not come before a safe and warm living environment where the physical and emotional needs of a child can be met.
I guess that means this time next year I wont be a millionaire then!
It sounds like a film title but sadly it is not. Instead it describes the constant questioning many social workers ask themselves over and over. Working in front line child protection will always raise tensions and frustrations, within ourselves and the social workers we work with inevitably leading to clashes of thought, personalities and outcomes. This is not social work as we might want it to be, although many people may recognise the tensions and dilemmas that are experienced in front line practise. As social work practise and theory changes the aim is to become more logical and systemic in the analysis, removing the clashes and tensions for a more logical thought process. Gathering data and information with the aim to process this more efficiently in order to understand what the concerns are.
But have the changes in social work improved the working conditions for social workers? sadly not. The competing challenges of meeting targets mixed in with overcoming societies social and economic difficulties matched with a combined reduction in services and not forgetting the aim of trying to do some direct work we all trained for. However, the strain of the changes is showing in many way different ways and worryingly it is the capacity to manage the amount of work that is being referred to Social Care for assessment. Strain and pressure on a fragile service that remains high risk for the vulnerable children that need safeguarding and also a service vulnerable to a Government that would be happy to shut it down.
For me and social work this year, I have had to learn and develop a resilience to these pressures. Rebuild my strength and resolve to focus on what I believe is good social work practise and promote positive social work intervention. Often meaning even when I have felt like walking away, I have had to pick myself up and up the social workers I work with. In order to give them the focus and reflection they need to remain focused on effecting positive change. Whilst watching others argue and buckle under the same pressures and for some this has been too much and they have felt the need to move on to different pastures.
Social work practise may have changed and for the better, but its time to be honest and admit that the pressure has not. The expectation that no mistakes will be made with high case loads, lack of resources remain. Furthermore the expectation that as a social worker you will work long hours often unpaid and unrewarded will be a standard expectation and if you don’t do this you will be challenged and criticised for not meeting the expectations put on you. So how can you enjoy positive work with families and children when the one thing you need is time is not available. When even if you find the time and space you need, the ability to reflect and research the information you are given is not there because the pressure the service is under means you have no manager, no supervision, no colleagues to explore ideas with.
This might be what the Government wants, waiting for another major failure to attack and destroy social work. But for you, me and social work we all need to continue to fight and improve the service we provide through better communication and learning from each other.
Like for many people this year has been a journey for me. I began so confident in the route that I had chosen to take because I knew where I wanted to be. However, like many journeys you do not always end up where you think you will. Worryingly this year I ended up becoming lost on my route losing the passion and strength required to be the best social worker I could be. I guess if I am honest change never sits well with me anyway, yet this time last year I was excited by the thought of change and where it could take me. Once again it is Christmas and I am again faced with the thought of making another change and for the first time this year I am feeling positive about myself and again excited about social work and where I might end up.
“is this a fact or are you just saying this confidently” is a phrase I have heard a lot this year and sometimes my answer has been I do not know. However, working in a new environment has helped develop my practise, supervision and reflection. I have learnt for some social workers that this has been difficult to understand wanting and needing guidance on every step of case progression. But I have learnt that although I can do this, it is not the social worker I want to be. It has reinforced in my heart the type of social work I enjoy practising and delivering and when given the chance to do this I have seen how positive an impact this has had on my social workers.
The current theme maybe that social workers are not able to achieve goals because of an over optimism in the ability of parents to make changes. Yet outcomes remain a key focus of social work practise and change is part of this. Mr Gove may feel better social work education is needed, but having experienced this year I would argue that education on its own will not be the solution to improving social work. Instead recognising that social work learning never stops and that by maintaining links with the University’s in order to manage continuing professional development along with good workplace one to one supervision and peer supervision.
So again I am faced with change and the fear of failing but instead this time I am going to stick to what I enjoy. I am going to continue to challenge practise and develop my social workers practise, because what I want to achieve is a positive outcome for children and their families. recognising that there will be many paths I can take but I take strength from this year and what I have learnt and will use this to keep me focused on my new social work journey. Remembering not to take the change for granted but again to start enjoying social work wherever I may be.
Like many other social workers I have waited patiently to see what changes may come from the numerous serious case reviews that have been in the press over the past five years. The Munro Review challenged the heart of current social work practise and challenged the Government and local Authoritys to make those changes so deseparetly needed.
However for a long period of time there was almost a stale mate in whether these changes could be made. Can social workers go about their profession with the experience and competence needed to deliever a service that will safeguard children.
Slowly, and very slowly even social workers wanted a change in their practise. Long hours, poor computer systems, poor supervision with limited budgets and change being evidenced slowly was a not an inspiring career to be in, with many social workers looking for career changes.
Sadly though all of the talking and wanting change the only real change that came was that of the image of social work further damaged from the media pushing for change and the number of children being failed by ALL services.
So it is easy to see why it is not the process that need to change but the quality of social work instead, and promoting a positive image of social work. Supervision has always been the forum in which social work practise has been able to be discussed between a manager and the social worker; where the fears and theory’s can be tested, either formally or informally. This has been developed in to a reflective practise supervision allowing one persons knowledge to be shared into a teams knowledge. Ensuring that the issues within family’s are known by all workers giving the family a larger pool of social workers to talk with. It also means that the experience and knowledge of all social workers can be shared helping develop the experience of all of the workers within the Pod/team.
But despite all the changes, and the change of thinking within social work there is no escape from the long hours, the pressure of ensuring safeguards are in place, the fear of ‘have I done enough?’ never goes. The dream of having a low case load so that more direct work can be completed with the family remains a dream.
There are no escapes from the hardships in which the communities we live and work in continue to become worrying with housing, low incomes unemployment bringing more domestic abuse, more substance misuse.
Group or Pod Supervision enables workers to hear and learn about families that live within these communities and enables pictures to be gained of the impact each family may have upon each other. Enabling the social workers to explore through their practise how they can make effective changes by understanding the communities in which they work in.
Having made a change to this type of supervision I have enjoyed the change in supervision style and enjoyed exploring the wider support network that may be already available to the families. Although this has been a small change in practise and one of many that has been required, I have seen a positive change in how a team can support each other. Visits becoming more focused and consistent within the team, families become more relaxed with the workers that visit.
Although social work practise does still require further changes, these should not be done in isolation of our partner agency’s to ensure that safeguarding does remain the responsibility of all agency’s not just social work.
Sometimes in this job you have a week that is like no other you have experienced before and for me this is an important subtle reminder that you can never make any assumptions in social work. It is also a gentle reminder that life is precious and should be treated with respect, and maybe I am growing softer with age – as this week I feel like I have been left with a hole in my heart.
Cases of domestic violence still remain very common in the work that we do, the impact this has on the children is incredibly damaging and in the worse case be life changing. Especially, if the worse case scenario happens and one of the parents is killed by the other leaving the children without their parents and no understanding why or how this could happen. Even at the lower end of domestic abuse the impact on the child\ren is still significant with often multiple home moves to avoid violent adults, school changes, emotional harm from hearing or witnessing Domestic abuse, learning behaviour that is not acceptable, physical harm.
Domestic violence is defined as
“Any incident of threatening behaviour, violence or abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial or emotional) between adults who are or have been intimate partners or family members, regardless of gender or sexuality.”
However, in order to support this Local Authorities hold a ‘MARAC’ (Multi Agency Risk Assessment Conference). Which is as it sounds a commitment of all the agency’s to create a risk assessment and plan to safeguard the most vulnerable women subjected to domestic violence. A meeting that lists the horrors committed and left me truly speechless and concerned by the levels of domestic violence that still takes place on a very regular occurrence.
This article shows that the levels of domestic violence is falling and why are we not celebrating this news? because like me it questions whether as a society whether we have a grip of domestic violence, that many of the stereotypes still exists looking at the history of the victim to look at reasons why they may have been attacked or could be blamed for the attack. Or more importantly because domestic violence is more commonly known that the victims involved keep quiet fearing that they will be punished for their abuse or denying the impact upon themselves.
It is positive to hear that prosecution rates are increasing and maybe because some areas are developing their multi agency approach to include opening special courts to ensure that protection is provided to the victim and alleged perpetrator. Domestic violence is not just a local problem but a global problem and can affect any family at any time and only needs to happen once for the damage to be final and tragic.
So for me this week helping one family put their lives together after their loss has been a hard challenge, both emotionally as a parent but also making the assessment of risk and keeping the child at the centre of any plans. Whilst also sensitively working with a family who are grieving at their loss, without wanting to intrude any more than necessary during an emotional time for everyone.
So if you need help and advice about Domestic violence visit the National Domestic Violence Helpline for information and guidance.
For me the issue of Domestic Violence needs to remain at the top of priorities for all professionals and should never be accepted or brushed under the carpet. Although the numbers of prosecutions are rising so are the numbers of incidents with many never being reported or recorded. With services being cut and housing issues rising, this further makes this situation difficult for many victims to report their concerns. As professionals we need to continue to work together in a multi agency approach and listen to concerns raised during our assessments even if at a very low level of concern to protect from this escalating further.
Have you ever wondered who you are? Struggled to understand where you fit in life? Have you ever taken time out to try and understand who you are and how you fit into the world around you?! Knowing who we are is so important to our social identity and sense of belonging. In my own search to discover who I am, I have certainly had to search long and hard and still I find that I am continuing to wonder who I am and what makes me feel like I belong.
However, as we continue to discover and learn about the impact of social identity, so do the young people we work with. Except, in their search to discover their own identities, they are also faced with their parents/carers, who are not only confused but also struggling to understand their children as they change through adolescents and create and find these new identities.
So why is it then, that when it comes to understanding young people is it so difficult? Why is it as adults that we struggle to relate with the needs of young people to create an image they feel comfortable with? By failing to understand this need and managing it safely, young people continue to be vulnerable to those people who can recognise this and take advantage of how vulnerable young people are at this time – through sexual exploitation, gangs and criminal behaviour and substance misuse.
However, social work continues to engage the most needy of young people in exploring and understanding their behaviour and what makes this risky. With budgets cut and destroyed, a need for early intervention becomes so important. Therefore, understanding Identity becomes a key part of the process in ensuring that this is done effectively – especially where risk factors are increased with parental substance misuse, domestic violence,neglect and physical and sexual abuse. Significantly, with the cost of child care rising many parents are forced to take risks which impact upon their children’s development and, significantly, their identity.
For many young people, this means having to grow up too fast – wanting to achieve a sense of belonging, whilst also being willing to seek it anywhere. Yet often, adults – especially professionals – fail to explore how vulnerable children fit and feel within their families, leaving them at risk of breakdown and confusion and often, being unskilled in managing these feelings of loss can result in escaping through seeking out other young people with similar beliefs.
Therefore as social workers it is very important to understand identity, and beyond the obvious basic concepts of identity, i.e. ‘White British, Speaks English, does not practise any religion.’ This statement is certainly a missed opportunity in helping any vulnerable young person and preventing them from experiencing abuse, sexual exploitation or substance misuse or joining in gang and criminal activities.
For many years social work assessments have been the main focus for debate and questions within the media and social work practise. First we do the Initial assessment, then if we need more information we complete a more fuller core assessment. The time scales for these assessments were set in guidance regardless of the need or risk.
A good assessment will lead to good interventions and positive outcomes, with key decisions being made on the basis and quality of the assessment; but a bad assessment will lead to poor interventions and outcomes for the children. Historically, social work assessments have focused on what has worked well with families and have been rigid in the time scales for completion, with the needs and risks in individual situations being assessed in detail before judgements can be made about what interventions and services would be appropriate.
Therefore there has been some interest from children social workers with regard to how social work assessments in the new ‘Working Together document 2013′ would bring the changes that Munro had explored and described in her papers about child protection. In essence the new ‘Single Assessment’ as recommended by Munro has been developed and given the go ahead by the Government to be implemented by each Local Authority as they see fit, after being trialled and developed in eight local authorities. The single assessment combines and replaces the Initial Assessment and Core Assessment, and has the flexibility of the time scales to be set by the social work manager assessing the case. Bringing with it a new theory and practise, in order to manage and complete the essential social work assessment, whilst retaining the Assessment Framework Triangle and remaining child centred. The aim being that the plan is developed and identified right from the very first visit whilst along side this the social worker completes the assessment.
‘Assessment is the foundation for all effective intervention: as such it needs to be grounded in evidence from research and theories’ (Baldwin and Walker)
The single assessment brings with it a new way of social work practise, for social workers to be not only ‘Emotionally Intelligent’ but also have ‘Creative thinking’
‘A sense of being able to look at familiar situations in a new light. This is important way of avoiding getting bogged down in routine, standard ways of working that have limited effectiveness’ (Thompson and Thompson).
For me as a social worker I have seen that this has brought a positive change in social work practise, there is now a definitive sense that social work practise is looking at its knowledge base to evidence its work, training is being developed and focused on ensuring assessment skills and theories are relevant to the current pressures and demands being placed on social care departments at the moment. Quality in social work practise is being sort and demanded from social workers not for the image of social work, but for positive outcomes for families and children and because we are being starved of funding to support all but the most needy.
However, Community Care looked at what has changed two years on from the final Munro report? and whether social workers do feel that there has been any big change since Munro’s recommendations. We finally have the a slimmed down Working together document, but despite this the paperwork remains incredibly high and case loads remain high.
Despite this ‘Can there only be one?’ is the single assessment a better way forward removing delay between the assessment and the date from when the support can begin, requiring good management over sight to ensure that delay does not happen on the assessment. It allows the social worker to look at outcomes rather than assessment looking at the services the child may need. Furthermore it allows the social worker to develop a better understanding of what the risks are and what the strengths are within the families. Rather than looking at what has worked with other families it allows the social worker to be creative to develop an evolving plan and evolving assessment that changes with each new piece of information to reach the outcome established at the beginning of the assessment.
I think the answer is that there can never be one assessment, but a continuous assessment that allows an understanding that we can never look at a snap shot and that the plan should adapt with every new piece of information.